NFS

In some cases the default shared folder implementations (such as VirtualBox shared folders) have high performance penalties. If you are seeing less than ideal performance with synced folders, NFS can offer a solution. Vagrant has built-in support to orchestrate the configuration of the NFS server on the host and guest for you.

Windows users: NFS folders do not work on Windows hosts. Vagrant will ignore your request for NFS synced folders on Windows.

Prerequisites

Before using synced folders backed by NFS, the host machine must have nfsd installed, the NFS server daemon. This comes pre-installed on Mac OS X, and is typically a simple package install on Linux.

Additionally, the guest machine must have NFS support installed. This is also usually a simple package installation away.

If you are using the VirtualBox provider, you will also need to make sure you have a private network set up. This is due to a limitation of VirtualBox's built-in networking. With VMware, you do not need this.

Enabling NFS Synced Folders

To enable NFS, just add the type: "nfs" flag onto your synced folder:

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  # ...

  config.vm.synced_folder ".", "/vagrant", type: "nfs"
end

If you add this to an existing Vagrantfile that has a running guest machine, be sure to vagrant reload to see your changes.

NFS Synced Folder Options

NFS synced folders have a set of options that can be specified that are unique to NFS. These are listed below. These options can be specified in the final part of the config.vm.synced_folder definition, along with the type option.

  • nfs_export (boolean) - If this is false, then Vagrant will not modify your /etc/exports automatically and assumes you've done so already.

  • nfs_udp (boolean) - Whether or not to use UDP as the transport. UDP is faster but has some limitations (see the NFS documentation for more details). This defaults to true.

  • nfs_version (string | integer) - The NFS protocol version to use when mounting the folder on the guest. This defaults to 3.

NFS Global Options

There are also more global NFS options you can set with config.nfs in the Vagrantfile. These are documented below:

  • functional (bool) - Defaults to true. If false, then NFS will not be used as a synced folder type. If a synced folder specifically requests NFS, it will error.

  • map_uid and map_gid (int) - The UID/GID, respectively, to map all read/write requests too. This will not affect the owner/group within the guest machine itself, but any writes will behave as if they were written as this UID/GID on the host. This defaults to the current user running Vagrant.

  • verify_installed (bool) - Defaults to true. If this is false, then Vagrant will skip checking if NFS is installed.

Specifying NFS Arguments

In addition to the options specified above, it is possible for Vagrant to specify alternate NFS arguments when mounting the NFS share by using the mount_options key. For example, to use the actimeo=2 client mount option:

config.vm.synced_folder ".", "/vagrant",
    :nfs => true,
    :mount_options => ['actimeo=2']

This would result in the following mount command being executed on the guest:

mount -o 'actimeo=2' 172.28.128.1:'/path/to/vagrantfile' /vagrant

You can also tweak the arguments specified in the /etc/exports template when the mount is added, by using the OS-specific linux__nfs_options or bsd__nfs_options keys. Note that these options completely override the default arguments that are added by Vagrant automatically. For example, to make the NFS share asynchronous:

config.vm.synced_folder ".", "/vagrant",
    :nfs => true,
    :linux__nfs_options => ['rw','no_subtree_check','all_squash','async']

This would result in the following content in /etc/exports on the host (note the added async flag):

# VAGRANT-BEGIN: 21171 5b8f0135-9e73-4166-9bfd-ac43d5f14261
"/path/to/vagrantfile" 172.28.128.5(rw,no_subtree_check,all_squash,async,anonuid=21171,anongid=660,fsid=3382034405)
# VAGRANT-END: 21171 5b8f0135-9e73-4166-9bfd-ac43d5f14261

Root Privilege Requirement

To configure NFS, Vagrant must modify system files on the host. Therefore, at some point during the vagrant up sequence, you may be prompted for administrative privileges (via the typical sudo program). These privileges are used to modify /etc/exports as well as to start and stop the NFS server daemon.

If you do not want to type your password on every vagrant up, Vagrant uses thoughtfully crafted commands to make fine-grained sudoers modifications possible to avoid entering your password.

Below, we have a couple example sudoers entries. Note that you may have to modify them slightly on certain hosts because the way Vagrant modifies /etc/exports changes a bit from OS to OS. If the commands below are located in non-standard paths, modify them as appropriate.

For *nix users, make sure to edit your /etc/sudoers file with visudo. It protects you against syntax errors which could leave you without the ability to gain elevated privileges.

All of the snippets below require Vagrant version 1.7.3 or higher.

For OS X, sudoers should have this entry:

Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD = /usr/bin/tee -a /etc/exports
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD = /sbin/nfsd restart
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE = /usr/bin/sed -E -e /*/ d -ibak /etc/exports
%admin ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD, VAGRANT_NFSD, VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE

For Ubuntu Linux , sudoers should look like this:

Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD = /usr/bin/tee -a /etc/exports
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_COPY = /bin/cp /tmp/exports /etc/exports
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_CHECK = /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server status
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_START = /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_APPLY = /usr/sbin/exportfs -ar
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE = /bin/sed -r -e * d -ibak /tmp/exports
%sudo ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD, VAGRANT_NFSD_CHECK, VAGRANT_NFSD_START, VAGRANT_NFSD_APPLY, VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE, VAGRANT_EXPORTS_COPY

For Fedora Linux, sudoers might look like this (given your user belongs to the vagrant group):

Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD = /usr/bin/tee -a /etc/exports
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_CHECK = /usr/bin/systemctl status --no-pager nfs-server.service
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_START = /usr/bin/systemctl start nfs-server.service
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_NFSD_APPLY = /usr/sbin/exportfs -ar
Cmnd_Alias VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE = /bin/sed -r -e * d -ibak /tmp/exports
%vagrant ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: VAGRANT_EXPORTS_ADD, VAGRANT_NFSD_CHECK, VAGRANT_NFSD_START, VAGRANT_NFSD_APPLY, VAGRANT_EXPORTS_REMOVE

Other Notes

Encrypted folders: If you have an encrypted disk, then NFS very often will refuse to export the filesystem. The error message given by NFS is often not clear. One error message seen is <path> does not support NFS. There is no workaround for this other than sharing a directory which is not encrypted.