Alright, so we have a virtual machine running a basic copy of Ubuntu and we can edit files from our machine and have them synced into the virtual machine. Let us now serve those files using a webserver.
We could just SSH in and install a webserver and be on our way, but then
every person who used Vagrant would have to do the same thing. Instead,
Vagrant has built-in support for automated provisioning. Using this
feature, Vagrant will automatically install software when you
so that the guest machine can be repeatably created and ready-to-use.
We will just setup Apache for our basic project,
and we will do so using a shell script. First, we need to add some html content
which will be served by the Apache webserver. This will act as our DocumentRoot
folder. To do this create a subdirectory named
html in the project root
directory. In the
html directory create a html file named
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <h1>Getting started with Vagrant!</h1> </body> </html>
The script below will symlink our shared folder
/vagrant so that apache serves
html folder when accessing the root page locally. Now, create the
following shell script and save it as
bootstrap.sh in the same directory as
#!/usr/bin/env bash apt-get update apt-get install -y apache2 if ! [ -L /var/www ]; then rm -rf /var/www ln -fs /vagrant /var/www fi
Next, we configure Vagrant to run this shell script when setting up our machine. We do this by editing the Vagrantfile, which should now look like this:
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "hashicorp/bionic64" config.vm.provision :shell, path: "bootstrap.sh" end
The "provision" line is new, and tells Vagrant to use the
to setup the machine, with the
bootstrap.sh file. The file path is relative
to the location of the project root (where the Vagrantfile is).
After everything is configured, just run
vagrant up to create your
machine and Vagrant will automatically provision it. You should see
the output from the shell script appear in your terminal. If the guest
machine is already running from a previous step, run
vagrant reload --provision,
which will quickly restart your virtual machine, skipping the initial import
step. The provision flag on the reload command instructs Vagrant to
run the provisioners, since usually Vagrant will only do this on the first
After Vagrant completes running, the web server will be up and running. You cannot see the website from your own browser (yet), but you can verify that the provisioning works by loading a file from SSH within the machine:
$ vagrant ssh ... vagrant@bionic64:~$ wget -qO- 127.0.0.1
This works because in the shell script above we installed Apache and
setup the default
DocumentRoot of Apache to point to our
directory, which is the default synced folder setup by Vagrant.
You can play around some more by creating some more files and viewing them from the terminal, but in the next step we will cover networking options so that you can use your own browser to access the guest machine.
For complex provisioning scripts, it may be more efficient to package a custom Vagrant box with those packages pre-installed instead of building them each time. This topic is not covered by the getting started guide, but can be found in the packaging custom boxes documentation.
You have successfully provisioned your first virtual machine with Vagrant. Read on to learn about networking.